The Crown and Indigenous Peoples interpret and understand treaties differently. There are vast discrepancies between oral and written versions of treaties, and specifically words like “cede” and “surrender.”
Treaties were not a means of granting of rights to Indigenous Peoples, as they had their own governance systems prior to the arrival of settlers.
Historic and modern treaties were intended to assure that Indigenous ways of life could continue. Many modern treaties were signed in the face of settler industrial resource extraction ambitions; they often signify compromise.